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In re L.W.

Court of Appeals of Texas, First District

April 9, 2019

IN THE INTEREST OF L.W. AND L.W., CHILDREN

          On Appeal from the 313th District Court Harris County, Texas Trial Court Case No. 2017-03500J

          Panel consists of Chief Justice Radack and Justices Goodman and Countiss.

          MEMORANDUM OPINION

          JULIE COUNTISS JUSTICE

         In this accelerated appeal, [1] appellant, mother, challenges the trial court's order, entered after a bench trial, terminating her parental rights to her minor children, L.R.W. and L.D.W. (collectively, "the children").[2] In three issues, mother contends that the evidence is legally and factually insufficient to support the trial court's findings that she knowingly placed, or knowingly allowed the children to remain, in conditions or surroundings which endangered their physical and emotional well-being;[3] she engaged, or knowingly placed the children with persons who engaged, in conduct that endangered their physical and emotional well-being;[4]she failed to comply with the provisions of a court order that specifically established the actions necessary for her to obtain the return of the children;[5] and termination of her parental rights was in the best interest of the children.[6]

         We affirm.

         Background

         On June 26, 2017, the Department of Protective Services ("DFPS") filed a petition, seeking termination of mother's parental rights to the children and managing conservatorship of the children.

         DFPS Investigator Capps

         At trial, DFPS investigator Nicole Capps testified that on June 24, 2017, she received a "Priority 1" physical abuse referral that required an immediate response at a hospital. When Capps arrived at the hospital, she found that mother's third child, R.W., Jr., had died. R.W., Jr. was two years old at the time of his death. According to Capps, R.W., Jr. had cuts, bruises, and scabs in various stages of healing over his entire body. More specifically, Capps observed a large scab on the right side of R.W., Jr.'s forehead, "a purple-scabbed cut" and a quarter-sized bruise on the left side of his forehead, a right black eye, "[p]atterned marks under [his] left eye," a swollen left eye, a swollen left side of his face, "[v]arious cuts and scabs on [his] right neck area," a nickel-sized scab on his right upper chest, scabs on his right ear and marks behind his right ear, a "[p]atterned mark on [his] upper left arm that appeared purple," various scabs across his chest, stomach, and hip area, "[b]ruising to the left of [his] belly button and [on his] stomach," "[h]ealing scabs" on his right upper leg, a "1.5-inch scabbed mark on [his] right side," a half-dollar sized scab on his upper back, various other scabs on his back and an open wound on the right side of his back, healing scabs and a bruise on the back of his left leg, and scars and an open wound on the back of his upper right leg. Mother stated that R.W., Jr.'s injuries were caused by "r[unning] into a freezer"; however, in Capp's opinion, R.W., Jr.'s injuries indicated that someone had been physically abusing the child for a prolonged period of time, and his injuries were not consistent with mother's explanation. Capps explained that R.W., Jr.'s death was ruled a homicide and it was not the result of an accident. Instead, the child had been "beaten to death." The trial court admitted into evidence numerous photographs of R.W., Jr. taken after his death which depict the child's numerous injuries.

         Capps further testified that on June 24, 2017, i.e., the day of R.W., Jr.'s death, mother could not account for her whereabouts from approximately 3:00 p.m. until 9:00 p.m. Mother, however, indicated that during that time she had left her apartment and left the children and R.W., Jr. in the care of her boyfriend. Around 9:00 p.m., mother went to the children's maternal grandmother's home for approximately an hour, and mother was not at her apartment when R.W., Jr.'s body was found. According to Capps, at approximately 10:15 p.m. on June 24, 2017, R.W., Jr. arrived at the hospital and at 10:30 p.m. he was declared dead. While at the hospital, Capps also saw L.R.W., who was five years old at the time, and L.D.W., who was eight months old at the time, and both children appeared to be healthy. Although L.D.W. did not have any injuries, L.R.W. had "two scars that appeared to be healing, like fork kind of marks that were from like a curling iron [or] like a straightener."

         Capps also explained that two days after R.W., Jr.'s death, L.R.W. was interviewed. During her interview, the child stated that on the day that R.W., Jr. had died, he had "got[ten] a whooping and . . . his heart broken." L.R.W. further explained that mother's boyfriend fought with R.W., Jr., R.W., Jr. received a "hard whooping" from mother's boyfriend, and mother was in the apartment when her boyfriend "whoop[ed]" R.W., Jr. According to L.R.W., mother's boyfriend also made her and R.W., Jr. do "push[-]ups" when they got in trouble. In Capps's opinion, mother's failure to intervene while her boyfriend "beat[]" R.W., Jr. endangered the child's life as well as the lives of mother's two other children.

         Regarding mother, Capps testified that, in general, when mother disciplined L.R.W. and R.W., Jr., prior to his death, she made them "get down in [a] push-up position for like an hour or until they got weak." Mother also regularly "whoop[ed]" L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. for fifteen minutes at a time, stopping only when L.R.W. or R.W., Jr. began to scream. Capps noted that mother physically disciplined L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. in the bathroom of her apartment, mother would have L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. "put their hands on the toilet," and mother would close the bathroom door so that L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. could not escape. Because L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. moved around when they were being physically disciplined, various parts of their bodies would be hit. In other words, according to Capps, when mother "beat[] them with a belt[, ] . . . she would be hitting them all over their bod[ies]." Mother admitted to leaving marks on L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. "a few times." In Capps's opinion, mother's "beating[]" of R.W., Jr. "four times a day" constituted endangering conduct.

         With respect to R.W., Jr., specifically, mother admitted to physically hitting the child, including hitting him on the day that he died. Mother also admitted that she had "whoop[ed]" the child multiple times a day in the days leading up to R.W., Jr.'s death. According to mother, on the day that R.W., Jr. died, he and L.R.W. had dropped food on the floor of the apartment and this prompted her to physically discipline them. In total, L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. received four "whipp[ings]" on the day that R.W., Jr. died. Mother further stated that she was the only person who had ever physically hit and physically disciplined R.W., Jr. And when mother physically disciplined R.W., Jr., she would "corner him in a bathroom so [that] he could not escape." In Capps's opinion, "some of [mother's] physical discipline resulted in the injuries [she] observed on" R.W., Jr., and Capps believed that "mother was beating the child."

         Capps also testified that mother knowingly left the children and R.W., Jr. in the care of her boyfriend, who used illegal narcotics and who smoked marijuana while caring for the children and R.W., Jr. And mother's boyfriend admitted that he disciplined L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. by hitting them with his hand and with a belt. In Capps's opinion both mother and her boyfriend caused R.W., Jr.'s death.

         DFPS Caseworker Mangram

         DFPS caseworker Kamma Mangram testified that mother reported to her that on the day that R.W., Jr. died, mother, her boyfriend, the children, and R.W., Jr. were at her apartment. Mother woke up around 7:00 a.m. or 8:00 a.m., and at some point, L.R.W. asked mother to make her something to eat, which she did. Mother then put L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. in the living room and went back to her bedroom where her boyfriend was still sleeping. Mother's boyfriend later woke up around 12:00 p.m. or 1:00 p.m. because L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. were being loud. At that time, mother got up and found that the L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. had not eaten their food and "there was food all over the floor." Mother physically disciplined L.R.W. because there was food on the floor. At some point, mother went outside to her car for a period of time between ten and thirty-five minutes. As mother climbed the stairs to return to her apartment, she heard R.W., Jr. crying loudly. When mother got upstairs, she found that the door to her apartment had been locked by her boyfriend. Mother stood outside for a few minutes listening to R.W., Jr. cry before her boyfriend unlocked the door. When mother opened the door, R.W., Jr. ran to her and she told her boyfriend "that was enough." This caused her boyfriend to "stop[]." Mother told Mangram that when she stated "that was enough" she meant that her boyfriend had done "enough" hitting and spanking of R.W., Jr. with a belt.

         Mangram further testified that mother could not recall what else happened on the day that R.W., Jr. died until about 7:00 p.m. when the children's maternal grandmother called mother. Thereafter, mother spent thirty-five minutes getting dressed and left her apartment to get food for the maternal grandmother. When mother left, the children and R.W., Jr. stayed at the apartment with mother's boyfriend. Mangram noted that mother left the children in the care of her boyfriend despite the fact that her boyfriend had physically disciplined R.W., Jr. that day and caused the child to cry loudly. While mother was gone from her apartment, her boyfriend called. By the time that mother arrived home, sometime between 8:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m., R.W., Jr. had stopped breathing. A call was made for emergency assistance around 9:39 p.m. R.W., Jr. was declared dead around 10:00 p.m., and Mangram stated that the child's cause of death was "blunt force." At the time of R.W., Jr.'s death, he had bruises, cuts, scrapes, and abrasions all over his body, and his wounds were in various stages of healing.

         Mangram noted that mother reported to hospital personnel that her boyfriend had stated that R.W., Jr. had fallen out of his bed and was vomiting at approximately 8:45 p.m. And according to Mangram, if such a report was true, then mother and her boyfriend had waited an hour before calling for emergency assistance. Mangram opined that the delay in seeking medical treatment for R.W., Jr. was significant and inexcusable.

         Mangram also noted that mother told her that a day or two prior to R.W., Jr.'s death, he was running around the living room with L.R.W. and L.R.W. "pushed [him] into the deep freezer." Mother reported that R.W., Jr. was "okay right after that, but that a little bit later, he went and laid down for a while . . . [which] was unusual." Mother also reported to Mangram that she had physically disciplined R.W., Jr. in the days leading up to the child's death, and mother stated that she had cornered him in the bathroom so that he could not run away while she "beat" him.

         Mangram opined that mother had endangered the lives of the children because they were present when R.W., Jr. was being physically abused. And Mangram noted that the marks and bruises on R.W., Jr. did not indicate that what had happened to the child on the day of his death was a "one-time incident." Rather, it appeared that R.W., Jr. had been "abused for a substantial amount of time," and mother did not seek medical treatment for the child's injuries. Mangram noted that at the time that the children entered DFPS's care, L.R.W. had a burn on her leg.

         With respect to mother's boyfriend, Mangram explained that he kept marijuana and marijuana paraphernalia in mother's home, specifically in the top drawer of mother's nightstand, and it was "[c]leary evident to anyone." Moreover, mother's boyfriend admitted to smoking marijuana while caring for the children and R.W., Jr. In Mangram's opinion, a parent who knowingly left her children with someone who smoked marijuana while caring for the children engaged in endangering conduct and created a dangerous environment. Additionally, mother admitted to Mangram that her boyfriend had physically disciplined L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. and she knew that he did so. In fact, mother could recall specifically that her boyfriend had physically injured or disciplined R.W., Jr. on three separate occasions, including on the day of the child's death, because R.W., Jr. would "not sit[] on a potty." When asked whether mother "knew that [her boyfriend] was beating" L.R.W. and R.W., Jr., Mangram responded that "[s]he did." Mangram opined that mother's action in allowing her boyfriend to "beat" L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. constituted endangering conduct and created a dangerous environment.

         Mangram further testified, related to mother, that mother admitted to disciplining L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. by making them "get in [a] push-up position for like an hour or until they g[o]t weak." Mother also admitted to "whoop[ing]" L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. for fifteen minutes at a time, stopping only when they started screaming or she could see marks. And mother conceded that she had previously left marks on L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. Moreover, mother stated that she had "whoop[ed]" L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. four times a day every other day. And when she did so, she placed them in the bathroom with the bathroom door closed. Because L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. would move around while being hit, mother would hit various parts of their bodies. When asked whether mother "literally trapp[ed] th[e] kids in the bathroom so [that] she c[ould] beat them," Mangram responded, "[y]es." Mangram noted that mother's physical discipline did not constitute "normal . . . spanking discipline."

         Mangram also explained that after the children entered the care of DFPS, mother received a Family Service Plan ("FSP"), which she did not complete. For instance, mother did not obtain stable housing and did not demonstrate that she could provide a loving and nurturing home for the children. Mangram noted that, during the pendency of the instant case, mother spent time in jail, and she had not seen the children since the time of R.W., Jr.'s death. After mother was released from jail on bond in April 2018, she began living with the children's maternal grandmother, who had a "CPS history." Thus, DFPS did not consider mother's housing to be adequate, and Mangram expressed concern about the children ever being placed with the maternal grandmother because she had access to R.W., Jr. prior to his death and yet never reported any physical abuse that the child had sustained.

         Regarding the children, Mangram stated that they were placed together in an adoptive foster home. The foster home was safe, stable, nurturing, and loving, and the children had been in the foster home for more than one year. L.R.W. was "very close" with her foster family, and she relied on her foster parents for emotional support. L.R.W. wanted to continue living with her foster parents, and the foster parents wanted the children to continue living with them.

         Moreover, Mangram explained that the foster family was all that L.D.W. had ever known, L.D.W. interacted with his foster parents, and he did not leave his foster parents' side. The children both "look[ed] to their foster parents for comfort and care" and were comfortable living with their foster parents. Additionally, the children's foster parents had provided for the children's needs, and Mangram believed that they would continue meeting the children's emotional and physical needs in the future. The children were not in emotional or physical danger in their foster parents' home and were not "beaten." The children's foster parents had excellent parenting abilities, had taken advantage of the services and the programs that were available to them, and the children were receiving any therapy, medical attention, and dental work that was required. The children's foster parents believed that education was important, and they wanted the children to graduate high school and attend college. Mangram noted that the foster parents' grandchild, who was L.R.W.'s age, lived in the home as well and the children shared a sibling bond with that child.

         Mangram further testified that after entering the care of DFPS, L.R.W. disclosed that mother had "beat[]" L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. and mother's boyfriend had beat them while mother was in the same room. L.R.W. also reported that mother's boyfriend had sexually abused her. L.R.W. explained that mother's boyfriend "g[ot] naked and g[ot] in the bed with her." And when mother then walked into the room, she told her boyfriend to stop, but he did not and mother "didn't do anything about it." L.R.W. additionally disclosed that mother's boyfriend "touch[ed] her pee pee" and "rubb[ed] her pee pee," she told mother, and mother "had seen it." Mangram opined that the fact that L.R.W. was sexually abused in mother's home created a dangerous environment for the children. After L.R.W. entered DPFS's care, she began attending therapy related to the sexual abuse that she had suffered.

         DFPS Special Investigator Jones

         DFPS special investigator Vernon Jones testified that he interviewed mother regarding R.W., Jr.'s death. During her interview, mother stated that on the day that R.W., Jr. died, she woke up around 7:00 a.m. to check on the children and R.W., Jr. and then went back to sleep until 11:00 a.m. At that time, mother woke up and fed the children and R.W., Jr. According to mother, between 11:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m., she had to discipline L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. "a couple of times." In total, mother stated that she had physically disciplined L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. four or five times on the day of R.W., Jr.'s death for fifteen minutes each time. Mother could not account for her whereabouts or her actions from 2:00 p.m. until 9:00 p.m. At 9:00 p.m., mother went to pick up food for the children's maternal grandmother and left the children and R.W., Jr. in the care of her boyfriend. While mother was out, her boyfriend called and told her that R.W., Jr. was not breathing, which prompted mother to return to her apartment.

         Regarding disciplining L.R.W. and R.W., Jr., who were five years old and two years old, respectively, at the time of R.W., Jr.'s death, mother generally explained that she would discipline them "physically with a belt . . . four times every other day." Each disciplining session would last fifteen minutes and would take place in the bathroom. Mother "would have the kids put their hands . . . on the toilet so that they wouldn't be able to move around" and she closed the door to the bathroom "so they couldn't run from her." She would also make L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. "get in [a] push[-]up position until they experienced muscle failure." According to mother, she disciplined the children herself and her boyfriend did not do so. Thus, mother took responsibility for any marks and bruises found on R.W., Jr. at the time of his death. However, mother ultimately offered no explanation for R.W., Jr.'s death "other than [by] saying that the children were playing rough with each other." In Jones's opinion, R.W., Jr. ultimately died from blunt force trauma caused by mother.

         Jones further testified that during his investigation, he went to mother's apartment, which was "not in a clean condition." The apartment was cluttered and had old food and trash all around. Jones noted that he found "blood droplets" on the walls. Jones opined that the condition of mother's home alone was endangering to the children.

         Assistant Medical Examiner Hopson

         Dr. Dana Hopson, assistant medical examiner at the Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences ("HCIFS"), testified that she performed an autopsy on the body of R.W., Jr. Regarding R.W., Jr.'s external injuries, Hopson testified that the child had numerous bruises or contusions on different areas of his body, including on his chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs. R.W., Jr. also had abrasions or scrapes on his skin and "blunt force injuries" on his face and on multiple areas of his body. Related to his back, Hopson noted that R.W., Jr. had "a lot of bruises that were . . . various sizes that . . . involv[ed] the majority of his back." When asked whether she "saw bruises and marks on [R.W., Jr.'s] body" "from head to toe," Hopson responded, "[y]es." Moreover, Hopson explained that R.W., Jr. had scars inside the lower part of his lip and a laceration of the lip, and she saw scars on his legs. In Hopson's opinion, R.W., Jr.'s lip injury would have been associated with some type of "blunt trauma."

         With respect to R.W., Jr.'s internal injuries, Hopson explained that R.W., Jr. had "an injury [to] the right side of [his] diaphragm, which [was] the main muscle that help[ed] with breathing" and "bruising or [a] hemorrhage of the lining over . . . one area of [his] small intestine[]." R.W., Jr. also had a "fracture on the back side of his right tenth rib," which showed no evidence of healing and thus likely occurred at or around the time of the child's death. Further, R.W., Jr. had "bleeding that was over the brain" which was caused by "blunt trauma" with "enough force to tear the veins that attach the dura mater to the brain." A neuropathologist, with whom Hopson had consulted, also found "some focal regions of bleeding within [R.W., Jr.'s] brain." Hopson opined that the injuries to R.W., Jr.'s brain did not appear to be "weeks old"; instead, they likely occurred between "24 hours to a few minutes before [the child] died." According to Hopson, the injury to R.W., Jr.'s head was a significant injury.

         Hopson further testified that while the bleeding in R.W., Jr.'s brain, the trauma to R.W., Jr.'s head, the injuries that he had to his torso, and the "bleeding in the soft tissues beneath [his] skin," contributed to R.W., Jr.'s death, the cause of R.W., Jr.'s death was "multiple blunt force injuries," which would have been caused by "some kind of force," i.e., either his body hitting another object or another object hitting his body. The locations of R.W., Jr.'s injuries did not indicate that they were caused by a single impact, rather his injuries indicated multiple impacts. The manner of R.W., Jr.'s death was homicide. In Hopson's opinion, R.W., Jr.'s death was not the result of an accident and "[s]omebody [had] killed th[e] child."

         Mother's FSP

         The trial court admitted into evidence mother's FSP which states that on June 24, 2017, two-year-old R.W., Jr. was declared dead at a hospital after mother's boyfriend reported that he heard a "thud" while in another room in mother's apartment smoking marijuana. According to mother's boyfriend, he went into the room where R.W., Jr. was and found the child crying and throwing up; R.W., Jr. then became unresponsive. At the hospital, R.W., Jr. was "found to be covered in various bruises, scratches, [and] open wounds" and he had swelling to his face and head.

         Mother reported that she had physically disciplined R.W., Jr. with a belt on more than one occasion in the two days prior to the child's death. Mother's boyfriend also admitted to disciplining L.R.W. and R.W., Jr. with his hand and a belt. According to mother's FSP, R.W., Jr. was singled out and physically beaten to death by mother and her boyfriend, and the child had been denied essential medical treatment. Both mother and her boyfriend were charged with the felony offense of injury to a child and "held at the Harris County jail."

         Mother's FSP also states that L.R.W. and L.D.W., who were five years old and eight months old, respectively, at the time of R.W., Jr.'s death, were vulnerable. And because of their ages, the children were "unable to recognize and flee a dangerous situation or seek outside protective resources." Given the nature of R.W., Jr.'s death, the FSP notes that mother had demonstrated an unwillingness or inability to protect the children. Moreover, L.R.W. had expressed fears of being seriously harmed in the care of mother and mother's boyfriend, and she reported that the physical abuse that she and R.W., Jr. had suffered was not the result of an isolated incident.

         Further, with respect to mother, the FSP explains that she had a significant lack of knowledge concerning child development and a significant lack of parenting skills needed to meet any child's behavioral and developmental needs. Moreover, mother's disciplining behaviors seemed violent, out of control, and disproportionately harsh compared to L.R.W.'s and R.W., Jr.'s misbehavior. Mother also left the children and R.W., Jr. with an inappropriate caregiver. And mother reported a history of domestic violence with the children's father before his death and a history of domestic violence with her boyfriend, who was "in and out of the home." Mother did not acknowledge a problem with the abuse that R.W., Jr. suffered and offered implausible explanations regarding the abuse and the cause of R.W., Jr.'s death. Mother was unwilling and unable to protect the children from those who might harm them.

         Indictment

         The trial court admitted into evidence a copy of mother's indictment for the felony offense of injury to a child.[7] The indictment states that mother "on or about June 24, 2017, did then and there unlawfully, intentionally and knowingly cause serious bodily injury to [R.W., Jr.], . . . a child younger than 15 years of age, by striking [him] with her hand[, ] . . . with a belt[, ] . . . [or] with an unknown object" or "by striking [R.W., Jr.] against an unknown object."

         Medical Records

         The trial court admitted into evidence a copy of R.W., Jr.'s medical records that state that R.W., Jr., a two-year-old, arrived at the hospital with significant injuries to his head, "multiple body injuries," and "obvious multiple prior injuries," and in cardiac arrest. Hospital personnel were told that R.W., Jr. was left at home with mother's "friend" while mother went to get food. Mother's friend told her that at 8:45 p.m. R.W., Jr. fell out of a bunk bed, which was approximately five feet above the ground. R.W., Jr. was reportedly awake and alert after the fall. One hour after the fall, however, the child began vomiting and lost consciousness. Mother reported that earlier in the day R.W., Jr. had hit his head on a "freezer cooler." Emergency assistance was called for at 9:39 p.m. and arrived at 9:45 p.m. At the time that emergency assistance arrived, R.W., Jr. was asystole. When R.W., Jr. was examined at the hospital, at 10:18 p.m., he showed "signs of multiple old injuries." The medical records note that abuse was suspected and list some of R.W., Jr.'s injuries as follows: multiple abrasions to upper and lower back, two large abrasions to upper chest, large old abrasions on the right temporal area, large contusion on the left side of face, left periorbital ecchymosis, upper and lower left eyelids swelling from contusions and ecchymosis, and left eye closed shut. R.W., Jr. was declared dead at 10:30 p.m.

         Autopsy Report

         The trial court admitted into evidence a copy of assistant medical examiner Hopson's autopsy report which states that R.W., Jr.'s cause of death was "[m]ultiple blunt force injuries" and his manner of death was homicide. The autopsy report extensively details the numerous external and internal injuries suffered by R.W., Jr.

         A Report of Anthropology Consultation included with Hopson's autopsy report, states, regarding the rib fracture suffered by R.W., Jr., that no healing was observed and the "[t]he characteristics of the fracture [were] consistent with a minimum of one blunt force impact to the right side of the back by an object of indeterminate surface area, occurring at or around the time of [R.W., Jr.'s] death." Further, "[p]ossible acute trauma [was] . . . present on the head and costochondral ends of all retained ribs," and injuries in such locations were "typically associated with compression of the rib cage."

         Additionally, an HCIFS Investigator Death Report included with Hopson's autopsy report states that on June 24, 2017, mother left the children and R.W., Jr. in the care of her boyfriend, with whom she lived so that she could go buy food. While mother was gone, R.W., Jr. began vomiting and mother's boyfriend called mother to ask her to return home. When mother arrived, R.W., Jr. was unresponsive. Hospital personnel noted several bruises throughout R.W., Jr.'s body in various stages of healing and there was an abrasion and bruise on the child's face. It was reported that R.W., Jr. had hit his head on a freezer and had fallen from a bunk bed several times. However, an investigation revealed that the only freezer in mother's home was a three-foot-tall plastic freezer. And the bunk bed in mother's apartment had a rail along the top bunk, which was five feet above the ground, and a bottom bunk that was only a foot above the ground. Mother's home was found to be unkempt and several belts were scattered throughout the residence. The children had bruising on them when they were placed in the care of DFPS.

          Materna ...


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